The term responsive design was coined by Ethan Marcotte in the May 2010 article of A List Apart. It is pretty straightforward: a website should adapt given the screen size and orientation to allow for a more readable and enjoyable experience for the users.
Fast forward to today and you will see a good set of tools and templates for developers to create websites that are responsive in nature. One of the most popular ones is Bootstrap. Here is a list of tips and tricks to help you spruce up your designs and speed them up too.
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